Unfortunately there are not too many studies about bilingualism yet but researchers agree that the strategies for promoting monolingual children’s language development can be applied successfully to bilingual children. Below are some tips which studies have proven work for developing language. While you may find some of these tips pretty obvious, I hope you can find useful and new information too.
The more exposure to a second (or third) language, the better.
Decades of research with monolingual children and more recent research with multilingual children have found out that the more exposure the child has had to the language, the better. These studies indicate that the amount of exposure to each language predicts a child’s levels of vocabulary and grammatical development in each language.
The earlier a child is exposed to a second language, the better.
Existing research states that the earlier you introduce your child to the language, the better language outcome he will get. We spoke about quantity before, but high quality exposure gives even better results.
Particularly for children under 18 months, children are more favorable to language learning when we use it as a response to the child’s behavior, attention or verbalization.
With 2 and 3 years old, beneficial language experience takes the form of conversations in which parents or fathers ask their children questions and there are numerous conversational exchanges.
In fact, Children who are exposed to high quality input in two languages before the age of 3 years (and continue to be exposed to both languages over time) outperform others who are first exposed after age 3 in reading, phonological awareness, and competence in both languages. Children who hear two languages from infancy start to learn both languages simultaneously, and the course of development in each language looks very much like the trajectory followed by monolingual children.
Content of parent talk
Additionally, it is not just speaking the language that is important; the content of spoken interactions between parents and children is also extremely important to develop language skills. If the discussion gets a response from the child,the child is learning more. If we speak about something the child is looking at, the child will be more prone to learn because he will be interested. However children will learn fewer words if parents redirect children’s attention and label objects not of their interest.
Diversity of parental speech
The richer and more diverse the parental speech is, the better the children’s vocabulary development will become. The richness of vocabulary, grammatical and lexical structures is associated with children’s vocabulary size, rate of vocabulary growth, and communicative diversity, phonological awareness, listening comprehension and cognitive skills.
Speaking about past experiences
Parents who talk at length with their children regarding past experiences have children with better vocabulary, story comprehension and narrative skills. This is a very good and easy exercise. Ask questions to your children about past events and encourage them to explain who was there, what objects were involved, what happened, how one thing led to another and why people behaved as they did.
One easy way to significantly raise your child’s vocabulary is taking dictations of children’s oral narratives. It is proven to improve the spelling and the reading comprehension too. . Take a tale that your child likes and do a couple of minutes of dictation every day.
Positive tone is also important. Not only because a negative tone discourages the child, but because the grammatical construction itself. Negative language is typically less rich because it is focused on very few specific words. Furthermore, commands don’t invite a conversation. There is a big different between “Where would you like to go?” and “Let’s go”.
Teaching vocabulary in context
Teaching vocabulary in context also enriches and deepens the child’s background knowledge and hence his or her vocabulary.
A mother that speaks about tools, seasons, plants, insects, and seeds while gardening is providing vocabulary in an appropriate context and therefore, helping her child to acquire a better extensive and connected vocabulary and assimilation of concepts. Do you like to have walks? Bring your child and explain to him/her what you see. Even a visit to the supermarket can enrich the children´s vocabulary with the right interaction.
Everyone knows that reading is important, but reading books in particular has numerous advantages. It develops oral language, growth of vocabulary and narrative skills, concepts and knowledge, articulation, phonological awareness, and early forms of writing such as scribbles and drawings. Reading books helps parents to use a more diverse vocabulary and invites conversations around the stories and content of the books.
The last report from the National Early Literacy Panel (2008) presents research and recommendations for early childhood educators for promoting foundational literacy skills. The report identifies the types of early literacy intervention that promote children’s early literacy skills. Their findings support the importance of alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid auto-naming of letters or digits, rapid auto-naming of objects or colors, writing one’s name, and phonological memory as predictive skills for literacy development. An additional five early literacy skills were also identified as potentially important variables, including concepts of print, print knowledge, reading readiness (e.g., alphabet knowledge), oral language skills, and visual processing. Engagement in literacy activities such as book reading promotes all these literacy skills.
The importance of a community
Having a community that reinforces the use of the second language is paramount to the development and the acquisition of second language. Hearing substantial language input from multiple speakers of any given language is more supportive of language development than hearing it from fewer speakers.
The importance of having bilingual programs available:
In the United States, it is a common pattern for toddlers to become increasingly English-dominant in their language skills during the preschool years, while growth in the secondary language decelerates. However, studies have documented that this doesn’t happen when both languages, the majority and the secondary language receive continual support. If you have the opportunity to enroll your child in a bilingual program, do not hesitate to do it. Many people have the wrong assumption that learning a secondary language negatively affects the language acquisition of the primary language, but studies indicate that children in environments where the dual language input is maintained perform at the same level as monolingual children in both languages by the age of 10 years. And researchers point out that bilingual programs have other important advantages too. Access to multilingual programming can assist children in their language and literacy development by facilitating the integration of component skills such as grammatical knowledge or vocabulary knowledge. Furthermore, this development can contribute to the development of parallel skills in a second or third language because children improve their ability to assimilate concepts. Even adults who can speak two languages find it easier to learn a third language because they have trained their brain for acquiring such a skill.